Christians Under Persecution in India: Convert or Flee

October 14, 2008 at 2:20 am Leave a comment

The family of Solomon Digal was summoned by neighbors to what serves as a public square in front of the village tea shop. 

They were ordered to get on their knees and bow before the portrait
of a Hindu preacher. They were told to turn over their Bibles, hymnals
and the two brightly colored calendar images of Christ that hung on
their wall. Then, Mr. Digal, 45, a Christian since childhood, was
forced to watch his Hindu neighbors set the items on fire.

” ‘Embrace Hinduism, and your house will not be demolished,’ ” Mr.
Digal recalled being told on that Wednesday afternoon in September.
” ‘Otherwise, you will be killed, or you will be thrown out of the
village.’ “

India, the world’s most populous democracy and
officially a secular nation, is today haunted by a stark assault on one
of its fundamental freedoms. Here in eastern Orissa State, riven by six
weeks of religious clashes, Christian families like the Digals say they
are being forced to abandon their faith in exchange for their safety.

The
forced conversions come amid widening attacks on Christians here and in
at least five other states across the country, as India prepares for
national elections next spring.

The clash of faiths has cut a
wide swath of panic and destruction through these once quiet hamlets
fed by paddy fields and jackfruit trees. Here in Kandhamal, the
district that has seen the greatest violence, more than 30 people have
been killed, 3,000 homes burned and over 130 churches destroyed,
including the tin-roofed Baptist prayer hall where the Digals
worshiped. Today it is a heap of rubble on an empty field, where cows
blithely graze.

Across this ghastly terrain lie the singed
remains of mud-and-thatch homes. Christian-owned businesses have been
systematically attacked. Orange flags (orange is the sacred color of
Hinduism) flutter triumphantly above the rooftops of houses and
storefronts.

India is no stranger to religious violence between
Christians, who make up about 2 percent of the population, and India’s
Hindu-majority of 1.1 billion people. But this most recent spasm is the
most intense in years.

It was set off, people here say, by the killing on Aug. 23 of a charismatic Hindu preacher known as Swami Laxmanananda Saraswati, who for 40 years had rallied the area’s people to choose Hinduism over Christianity.

The police have blamed Maoist guerrillas for the swami’s killing. But Hindu radicals continue to hold Christians responsible.

In
recent weeks, they have plastered these villages with gruesome posters
of the swami’s hacked corpse. “Who killed him?” the posters ask. “What
is the solution?”

Behind the clashes are long-simmering tensions between equally impoverished groups: the Panas and Kandhas.
Both original inhabitants of the land, the two groups for ages
worshiped the same gods. Over the past several decades, the Panas for
the most part became Christian, as Roman Catholic and Baptist
missionaries arrived here more than 60 years ago, followed more
recently by Pentecostals, who have proselytized more aggressively.

Meanwhile,
the Kandhas, in part through the teachings of Swami Laxmanananda,
embraced Hinduism. The men tied the sacred Hindu white thread around
their torsos; their wives daubed their foreheads with bright red
vermilion. Temples sprouted.

Hate has been fed by economic
tensions as well, as the government has categorized each group
differently and given them different privileges.

The Kandhas
accused the Panas of cheating to obtain coveted quotas for government
jobs. The Christian Panas, in turn, say their neighbors have become
resentful as they have educated themselves and prospered.

Their
grievances have erupted in sporadic clashes over the past 15 years, but
they have exploded with a fury since the killing of Swami Laxmanananda.

Two
nights after his death, a Hindu mob in the village of Nuagaon dragged a
Catholic priest and a nun from their residence, tore off much of their
clothing and paraded them through the streets.

The nun told the police that she had been raped by four men, a charge
the police say was borne out by a medical examination. Yet no one was
arrested in the case until five weeks later, after a storm of media
coverage. Today, five men are under arrest in connection with inciting
the riots. The police say they are trying to find the nun and bring her
back here to identify her attackers.

Given a chance to explain the recent violence, Subash Chauhan, the
state’s highest-ranking leader of Bajrang Dal, a Hindu radical group,
described much of it as “a spontaneous reaction.”

He said in an interview that the nun had not been raped but had had regular consensual sex.

On
Sunday evening, as much of Kandhamal remained under curfew, Mr. Chauhan
sat in the hall of a Hindu school in the state capital, Bhubaneshwar,
beneath a huge portrait of the swami. A state police officer was
assigned to protect him round the clock. He cupped a trilling
Blackberry in his hand.

Mr. Chauhan denied that his group was
responsible for forced conversions and in turn accused Christian
missionaries of luring villagers with incentives of schools and social
services.

He was asked repeatedly whether Christians in Orissa
should be left free to worship the god of their choice. “Why not?” he
finally said, but he warned that it was unrealistic to expect the
Kandhas to politely let their Pana enemies live among them as followers
of Jesus.

“Who am I to give assurance?” he snapped. “Those who have exploited the Kandhas say they want to live together?”

Besides, he said, “they are Hindus by birth.”

Hindu
extremists have held ceremonies in the country’s indigenous belt for
the past several years intended to purge tribal communities of
Christian influence.

It is impossible to know how many have
been reconverted here, in the wake of the latest violence, though a
three-day journey through the villages of Kandhamal turned up plenty of
anecdotal evidence.

A few steps from where the nun had been
attacked in Nuagaon, five men, their heads freshly shorn, emerged from
a soggy tent in a relief camp for Christians fleeing their homes.

The
men had also been summoned to a village meeting in late August, where
hundreds of their neighbors stood with machetes in hand and issued a
firm order: Get your heads shaved and bow down before our gods, or
leave this place.

Trembling with fear, Daud Nayak, 56,
submitted to a shaving, a Hindu sign of sacrifice. He drank, as
instructed, a tumbler of diluted cow dung, considered to be purifying.

In the eyes of his neighbors, he reckoned, he became a Hindu.

In his heart, he said, he could not bear it.

All five men said they fled the next day with their families. They refuse to return.

In
another village, Birachakka, a man named Balkrishna Digal and his son,
Saroj, said they had been summoned to a similar meeting and told by
Hindu leaders who came from nearby villages that they, too, would have
to convert. In their case, the ceremony was deferred because of rumors
of Christian-Hindu clashes nearby.

For the time being, the family had placed an orange flag on their mud home. Their Hindu neighbors promised to protect them.

Here
in Borepanga, the family of Solomon Digal was not so lucky. Shortly
after they recounted their Sept. 10 Hindu conversion story to a
reporter in the dark of night, the Digals were again summoned by their
neighbors. They were scolded and fined 501 rupees, or about $12, a
pinching sum here.

The next morning, calmly clearing his
cauliflower field, Lisura Paricha, one of the Hindu men who had
summoned the Digals, confirmed that they had been penalized. Their
crime, he said, was to talk to outsiders.

Source: New York Times

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